This coming monday, the 15th of July, Jews from all over the world will be fasting to commemorate the 9th of Av.
On Tisha B'Av (9th of Av), five national calamities occurred:
- During the time of Moses, Jews in the desert accepted the slanderous report of the 10 Spies, and the decree was issued forbidding them from entering the Land of Israel (1312 BCE).
- The First Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians, led by Nebuchadnezzar. 100,000 Jews were slaughtered and millions more exiled (586 BCE).
- The Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans, led by Titus. Some two million Jews died, and another one million were exiled (70 CE).
- The Bar Kochba revolt was crushed by Roman Emperor Hadrian. The city of Betar – the Jews' last stand against the Romans – was captured and liquidated. Over 100,000 Jews were slaughtered (135 CE).
- The Temple area and its surroundings were plowed under by the Roman general Turnus Rufus. Jerusalem was rebuilt as a pagan city – renamed Aelia Capitolina – and access was forbidden to Jews.
Other grave misfortunes throughout Jewish history occurred on the Ninth of Av, including:
- The Spanish Inquisition culminated with the expulsion of Jews from Spain (1492).
- World War One broke out (1914) when Germany declared war on Russia. German resentment from the war set the stage for the Holocaust.
- On the eve of Tisha B'Av 1942, the mass deportation began of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto, en route to Treblinka.
Fast begins: Monday 8:28 pm
Fast ends: Tuesday 9:01 pm